Yes, there are active and passive elements that can be personalised on each user page.
Passive personalisation is done by the company and on the basis of profile features, as for example, language settings, department and location.
These elements are usually news, navigation menus or teaser-boxes. But basically anything that can be shown anywhere in Confluence, can be personalised.
Active personalisation is done by the users themselves, within definable limits (but often also without limits), who can decide freely what should be shown and broadcast. Active personalisation applies to news, page subscriptions, space subscriptions, favourites and apps.
Theoretically it is also possible, that individual user groups have totally different structures on their pages. This sounds good in theory. But I cannot think of a single situation where we would have set this up for a client. For example: Programmers have a micro blog on their user profiles, marketing people have an event-calendar instead. This sounds good to me.