Yes, you can! You may want to watch our Video #37 of the video tutorial series “Learn Atlassian Confluence” to take a look at all the options.
Once you have started your search by typing your query in the search field and pressing enter, you will see a question mark in the search field on the right. Click on this question mark to open the “Search Help” dialog.
You’ll find valuable tips for searching in general, using an exact search, OR, AND, NOT, excluding search terms, etc. You will also learn how to use placeholders, how to search for content within macros, and under “Other,” you’ll see even more search options.
What you are looking for is called the “Excluded term search”. E.g., if you want to search for content that contains chalk and butter but NOT cheese, type: chalk butter - cheese (minus cheese.).
You will also find more helpful information in Atlassian’s documentation about the search on this page.